Card 69 - Reading
Раздел 2 (задания по Чтению)
|9||Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами и их заголовками: к каждому тексту, обозначенному буквами А-G, подберите соответствующий заголовок, обозначенный цифрами 1-8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.|
|1. Adding colours||5. Technical progress|
|2. A craftsman’s present||6. Popular Christmas dishes|
|3. The main tree of the country||7. An order to celebrate|
|4. The legend of the Christmas tree||8. Decorating from top to bottom|
|A||There are several stories which tell us why people decorate Christmas trees at home. One of them is about Martin Luther, the founder of the protestant faith. While he was walking through a forest on a Christmas Eve, he looked up and was impressed by the beauty of stars that were shining through the tree branches. He cut down a small tree and took it home. There, he decorated the tree with candles as a present for his family.|
|B||The tradition of decorating a Christmas tree comes from Germany. Until the 17th century, people followed strict rules when they decorated their Christmas tree. Firstly, a star was fixed on the top. Then people hung apples on lower branches of the tree. Finally, they placed biscuits, gingerbread and sweets underneath. The Christmas tree in the fairy tale Nutcracker was decorated in exactly this way.|
|C||Later, the order of decorations lost its importance. The first decorations were all hand-made and good to eat but rather dull. To make the tree look brighter people wrapped nuts and gingerbread in metal foil and also made painted wooden toys. To illuminate the tree small candles were stuck to the branches. To protect the tree from fire, the candles were placed inside glass stands.|
|D||The Christmas tree tradition came to Russia with Peter the Great in the 18th century. He enjoyed the celebration tradition in Germany and issued a law according to which all the families had to decorate their houses with pine tree branches. It was also announced that people should have fun on that day. Peter the Great also decided to move the New Year date from 1st September to 1st January.|
|E||The most popular Christmas decoration was invented by a German glass-blower who made a ball and decorated it with angel figures and snowflakes. He gave it as a gift to his daughter. The girl decided to put the ball on the Christmas tree. It was so beautiful that the glass-blower made many more decorated balls. It is believed that this man started the tradition of decorating the tree with coloured glass balls.|
|F||In the 18th century, people started decorating Christmas trees with candles. Later, with the discovery of electricity, electric lights were put on Christmas trees. It was Edward Johnson, an assistant of Thomas Edison, who first used electric lights for Christmas tree decoration. People liked his idea. However, it took several years before the electric lights became available to the general public.|
|G||Nowadays Christmas trees are found everywhere – in houses, on the streets and squares. Most of them are artificial trees. However, in the centre of Moscow, in the Kremlin, you can always see a natural Christmas tree. The tree is carefully chosen in the forest – it should be tall and beautiful. Professional designers decorate it to create an unforgettable fairytale tree for thousands of children and their parents.|
Запишите в таблицу выбранные цифры под соответствующими буквами
|Прочитайте текст. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений 10-17 соответствуют содержанию текста (1 - True), какие не соответствуют (2 - False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 - Not stated). В поле ответа запишите одну цифру, которая соответствует номеру правильного ответа.|
Esperanto is an artificial language which was invented at the end of the 19th century. Esperanto Day is celebrated on 15th December. The date for the birthday of the language was not chosen by chance. It is the birthday of its creator – the Polish doctor and linguist L. L. Zamenhof.
L. L. Zamenhof wanted to create a politically neutral language that would promote peace and international understanding between people who speak different languages. He hoped that his new language would be an international language, that is, many people's second language. L. L. Zamenhof didn’t want to replace any national tongue.
Thinking up a new language L. L. Zamenhof tried to make it simple, so that any person can learn it. Esperanto is based on Latin and modern European languages like French, English and Polish. However, Zamenhof’s language has none of the complicated grammar rules of many existing languages. As for the vocabulary of the language, L.L. Zamenhof chose word roots which a lot of people could recognize. In this way, anyone who speaks a European language already knows a large number of words in Esperanto. All words are spelled as pronounced. The language is easy to read and speak.
Nowadays, Esperanto is the most widely spoken artificial language in the world. Up to 2 million people worldwide speak Esperanto. It is particularly popular in Europe, East Asia, and South America. The World Esperanto Association has members in 120 countries.
Most people learn Esperanto on their own. They use teach-yourself books or email courses. Most learners gain impressive skills in this language and can use it in real life.
Through Esperanto they make contacts with people from around the world. They read books and magazines from other countries and listen to international radio broadcasts. There are over 25,000 original and translated books in Esperanto and over a hundred Esperanto magazines.
There are also many websites, blogs, podcasts, videos and television and radio stations in Esperanto. You can find lots of online discussions in Esperanto about different topics on the Internet. People can use Esperanto versions of the social network Facebook and other websites. Several computer programmes have an Esperanto version.
Learning a logical language can be a great way to exercise the brain and prepare for learning other languages. Several studies were carried out in Europe, United States, and Australia. In one study, a group of European secondary school students studied Esperanto for one year, then French for three years. The test showed that they had a better command of French than the students who studied only French for all four years. Similar results have been found in other studies.
|10||Esperanto Day is held in winter.
|11||L.L.Zamenhof wanted people all over the world to use Esperanto instead of their own languages.
|12||Esperanto was designed to be easy to learn.
|13||Most people who speak Esperanto live in Poland.
|14||It is impossible to learn Esperanto without a teacher.
|15||People use Esperanto for different purposes.
|16||You can find an Esperanto Wikipedia on the Internet.
|17||According to the research, Esperanto helps to learn other foreign languages.