Card 45 - Reading
Раздел 2 (задания по Чтению)
|9||Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами и их заголовками: к каждому тексту, обозначенному буквами А-G, подберите соответствующий заголовок, обозначенный цифрами 1-8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.|
|1. The birthplace of the city||5. Safety gates|
|2. Multifunctional construction||6. Defeating pollution|
|3. The first traffic jams||7. Navigation season|
|4. A perfect location||8. The royal birds|
|A||Almost 2,000 years ago, the army of Ancient Rome landed on the coast of Britain and headed north. Soon they came to a wide, deep river. The army could neither walk across it nor find an alternative route. The only solution was building a bridge. The Romans found a place where the river was relatively narrow and built a bridge. Then they founded a settlement, which they called Londinium. Today it is known as London.|
|B||The Romans soon discovered that Londinium was an ideal site for a port. Their bridge prevented large ships from going up the river, so all trading ships had to stop and unload at Londinium. It made Londinium an important trading centre and stimulated the growth and development of the city.|
|C||The first London bridge over the Thames was built of wood – and then rebuilt time and time again. Later, a stone bridge was constructed. By the 1350s there were nearly 200 houses and shops on top of the bridge, and the road across it was very narrow. It was very difficult for carriages, horses and people to move across the bridge. They often couldn’t pass one another and had to spend hours on the bridge.|
|D||When the Thames flooded, it covered London with water. After a bad flood in 1953, people began to look for a way to control the river. In 1982 the Thames Barrier was opened. When its gates are raised, they form a steel wall more than half a kilometre long across the Thames. It prevents flood water from reaching London. More than 90 times, the Thames Barrier has saved the capital from flooding.|
|E||Nowadays, Tower Bridge is one of the most famous bridges in the world. The walkway between the two bridge towers provides a perfect sightseeing platform to enjoy a magnificent view over London. Inside the towers there is an exhibition, which tells the history of the bridge via photos, films, and other media. Tower Bridge also performs its original function of providing a road across the River Thames.|
|F||In Britain, swans have privileged status. Since the 1100s, all unmarked swans on any public lakes or rivers in the country have belonged to the Crown. The swans on the River Thames are called Mute Swans. They have a bright orange beak with a black spot on the top. Every July, a special ceremony called “Swan Upping” takes place on the Thames at Windsor. All the swans are caught and their markings are checked and recorded.|
|G||Nowadays, the River Thames is the cleanest river in the world that flows through a big city. This is a great achievement because only fifty years ago the river was so dirty and poisoned that it was declared biologically dead. Special plants to clean the water were built in the 1950s. Soon, special laws were issued to stop factories letting their dirty water go into the river. Strict government measures have saved the river.|
Запишите в таблицу выбранные цифры под соответствующими буквами
|Прочитайте текст. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений 10-17 соответствуют содержанию текста (1 - True), какие не соответствуют (2 - False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 - Not stated). В поле ответа запишите одну цифру, которая соответствует номеру правильного ответа.|
The Great Fire of London
The Great Fire of London in September 1666 was one of the most famous incidents in the history of Great Britain. It was the second tragedy to hit London during one year. Just as London was recovering from the Great Plague, the citizens had to run away again – but now not because of a new disease, but because of a terrible fire.
The fire started on the night of September 2, 1666, in Pudding Lane, in a baker’s shop. The shop was owned by Thomas Farriner, the king’s baker. His maid didn’t put out the ovens at the end of the night. Soon the wooden home of Farriner was on fire. Farriner’s family left the house in panic and ran away. Thomas Farriner didn’t raise the alarm, though at that time it was possible to stop the fire.
The maid tried to climb out of the building too but failed. She was one of the few victims of the fire. Once it started, the fire spread quickly. London was basically made out of wood and after the hot summer, the city was very dry. Strong winds fanned the flames.
Besides, in the 17th century the city buildings were built close to each other and the fire spread with terrifying speed. Londoners tried to stop the fire, but their buckets of water could do nothing against such a terrible disaster. Unfortunately the Lord Mayor did not take any measures to stop the fire and the fire spread further.
After four days while helpless citizens were watching the destruction of their homes, the wind died and the fire was stopped. Then the accounting took place. Fully 80% of the city was destroyed including the spiritual centre of the city, Old St Paul's Cathedral. Surprisingly, very few people were killed.
Well, one person's disaster is another person's opportunity. Within days of the fire's end, an architect, Christopher Wren, proposed his plan to Charles II: it was a plan for the complete rebuilding of the city. Wren suggested making wide streets in the centre of London to open the city to light and air.
Charles II realized that Wren’s plan was very expensive and it would be difficult to put it into practice. Instead, Charles II offered that Wren rebuild the city's churches, including London’s main church – St Paul's Cathedral. Christopher Wren was completing this task for the next fifty years.
Christopher Wren also was responsible for building the London Monument, a memorial commemorating the fire. The Monument is a column with a height of 202 feet, which is the exact distance from the monument to the place where the fire began.
The original plans for the Monument provided a statue of Charles II on top, but Charles objected to the honour. He was afraid that the people of London would then associate him with the disaster. Wren replaced the statue with a simple bowl with flames. Nowadays the Monument is open for visitors all year round. Anyone can climb the 311 steps to the top of the Monument and enjoy a wonderful view of the city.
|10||There were several fires in London’s history.
|11||The king’s baker immediately warned the neighbours about the fire.
|12||The Lord Mayor ordered to destroy lots of buildings to stop the fire.
|13||Wren’s plan of London’s rebuilding was approved by the king.
|14||Christopher Wren agreed to create a monument to remind people about the Great Fire.
|15||There is a statue of King Charles II on top of the monument.
|16||Tourists can go up to the top of the London Monument.
|17||The London Monument is the only one in the capital dedicated to the Great Fire.