Card 41 - Reading
Раздел 2 (задания по Чтению)
|9||Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами и их заголовками: к каждому тексту, обозначенному буквами А-G, подберите соответствующий заголовок, обозначенный цифрами 1-8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.|
|1. Like the others do||5. A warm welcome|
|2. Unclear origin||6. Dishonest business|
|3. Eco-friendly people||7. A long-lasting name mistake|
|4. Keeping traditions||8. A deadly misfortune|
|A||The Native Americans were the first inhabitants of the Americas. They were the first environmentalists. To them, every part of the natural world, whether it was an animal, vegetable or mineral, had a spirit. American Indians viewed nature as a gift from the Gods, which should be treated with great respect at all times. They gratefully took food and clothes from nature, but they never exceeded the limits.|
|B||The Native Americans inhabited different regions of the country and there is no reliable evidence of where they come from. The Native Americans claim that they have lived there since the beginning of time. There is also an opinion that they migrated there in prehistoric times via the Bering Strait Land Bridge. Some researchers believe that they came from Siberia or Asia. All these are still only hypotheses.|
|C||When Christopher Columbus landed, he thought he had reached India and called all the native people Indians. The name, though it was wrong, stuck to the local people and has been used to the present day. In fact, there were lots of different independent tribes with their own distinct cultures and languages. But they all became known to common public as Indians.|
|D||The Pilgrims, who sought religious freedom and crossed the Atlantic in the Mayflower in 1620, were treated kindly by the Indian tribe in Massachusetts. The native inhabitants generously shared their knowledge with the newcomers. They showed the Pilgrims how to plant corn, beans, and pumpkins, and where to hunt and fish. In fact, the Indians were excellent fishermen and even invented a special canoe. A widely celebrated holiday of Thanksgiving still reminds us of this gesture of goodwill.|
|E||However, this harmonious relationship was short-lived. Native Americans had lived in isolation for centuries and they had no protection against such European diseases as smallpox, typhus and measles. Unfortunately, the newcomers introduced these diseases to them. For those in regular contact with European settlers, the effects were destructive: it is estimated that in some tribes up to 90% of Native Americans died during the first century of contact with the Europeans.|
|F||Then things moved from bad to worse. European settlers drove the Indians away from their lands as settlers moved westward. Treaties were often signed after Indian leaders were given alcohol. Whether through war or lies, the Native Americans' lands were systematically taken. Indians were forced to move to separate areas, known as Indian Reservations. Most of the lands were unsuitable for cultivation and didn't have any valuable resources.|
|G||Many visitors to the USA ask about how they can visit an Indian Reservation. They could hardly do it! Nowadays very few natives live in reservations or in the traditional dwellings of their ancestors. Most Indian families live in homes that are not very different from any other houses in the USA, and their lifestyle does not differ much from contemporary American lifestyle.|
Запишите в таблицу выбранные цифры под соответствующими буквами
|Прочитайте текст. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений 10-17 соответствуют содержанию текста (1 - True), какие не соответствуют (2 - False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 - Not stated). В поле ответа запишите одну цифру, которая соответствует номеру правильного ответа.|
Florence Nightingale was a celebrated English nurse and writer. According to a survey, British people consider her to be one of the most famous British persons along with outstanding scientists, writers and politicians.
She was born into a rich, upper-class family in 1820, in Italy. She got her name Florence after the city of her birth, as there was a tradition in her family to name the children in honour of the city they were born in. She got an all-round education and according to the family’s status Florence was expected to become a faithful wife and attentive mother.
However, in 1844 Florence decided to become a nurse, despite the intense anger and distress of her mother and sister. At that time nursing was seen as a job that needed neither education nor special medical skills.
In 1854 the Crimean War broke out and Florence Nightingale offered her services to the War Office and soon left for the Crimea with thirty-eight volunteer nurses. They began their work in the main British camp, in the hospital. Very soon Florence found out that hygiene was neglected, and fatal infections were common. There was no equipment to cook proper food for the patients. Florence decided to change the situation.
Nightingale managed to found a vast kitchen and a laundry. In addition to her nursing work, she tried to organize reading and recreation rooms for the wounded soldiers. She was on her feet for twenty hours a day and so were the other nurses. Florence was called ‘The Lady with the Lamp’ for her habit of making rounds round the hospital at night. She checked on her helpless patients.
Florence remained in the Crimea until 1856, then she returned to England.
In London Florence Nightingale visited Queen Victoria and persuaded the Queen of the need to create a military hospital system. Soon Florence Nightingale set up a training school for nurses, the first nursing school in the world. It is now called The Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery and is part of King's College in London. The annual International Nurses Day is celebrated around the world on Florence’s birthday, the 12th of May.
In the Crimea camp, Nightingale got ‘Crimean fever’ and never fully recovered. By the time she was 38 years old, she was seriously ill. She left her house very rarely and had to stay in bed most of the time. Nevertheless, Florence continued her work from her bed. She wrote many books, some of them became the base of the curriculum at the Nightingale School and other British nursing schools.
Florence Nightingale died in London in 1910, at the age of ninety. The government offered to bury Florence in Westminster Abbey, but her relatives did not agree. However, the memorial service took place in St. Paul's Cathedral.
Florence Nightingale received a lot of honorable awards. Several books were written about the life of ‘The Lady with the Lamp’ and a few films were shot about her.
|10||Florence Nightingale was named in honour of her birthplace.
|11||Florence’s family approved of her wish to become a nurse.
|12||Medical education was essential to become a nurse in the 19th century.
|13||Florence Nightingale cooked for the wounded herself.
|14||Florence Nightingale got her nickname because she often visited the wounded at night.
|15||Queen Victoria was impressed by Florence Nightingale’s work.
|16||Florence Nightingale’s school for nurses was closed after her death.
|17||Florence Nightingale was buried in Westminster Abbey.