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Lesson 16

Grammar & Vocabulary Practice

A. Раздел 3 (задание по грамматике и лексике)

Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами B4-B15 так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию B4-B15.

B4 The student asked for permission to leave the classroom. PERMIT
B5 Steven’s contribution to the discussion received everyone’s approval CONTRIBUTE, DISCUSS, APPROVE
B6 Many car rental companies have increased their rates this summer. RENT
B7 The student was given back her assignment as it was obvious no time had been spent in its preparation and it bore no relation to the subject. PREPARE, RELATE
B8 Worried that everyone would be bored, Sally was hesitant to give a highly descriptive account on her holiday. HESITATE, DESCRIBE
B9 Sandra chose aerobics because she doesn’t like competitive sports. COMPETE
B10 He’s got such an impressive collection of fine art. IMPRESS, COLLECT
B11 Addition is one of the simplest calculations. ADD, CALCULATE
B12 It took a lot of persuasion to get Kevin to write to his mother, as there had been little communication between them for many years. PERSUADE, COMMUNICATE
B13 As the students were tired, they were not very receptive to the teacher’s explanation of the theory. RECEIVE, EXPLAIN
B14 Many animals are inactive during the daytime and hunt during the night. ACT
B15 I find it difficult to be objective about matters that concern me. OBJECT


Theory: Linking words

B. Remember the following linking words below

Выучите наизусть нижеследующие связующие слова.

Giving examples
For example
For instance
Adding information
In addition
As well as
Apart from
In addition to
In short
In brief
In summary
To summarize
In a nutshell
To conclude
In conclusion
Sequencing ideas
The former, ... the latter
Firstly, secondly, finally
The first point is
The following
Giving a reason
Due to / due to the fact that
Owing to / owing to the fact that
Because of
Giving a result
This means that
As a result
Contrasting ideas
Although / even though
Despite / despite the fact that
In spite of / in spite of the fact that
In theory... in practice...


Examination Practice

C. Read the text.

Прочитайте нижеследующий текст и подумайте, какое слово больше всего подходит по смыслу в каждой пустой строке. Используйте слово только один раз.

Flower Power

Flowers grow everywhere in the world but when people think of tulips, they think of the Netherlands. The Dutch have a saying: “Flowers love people”. If this is true, then flowers really love the Dutch, (1) as flowers have been cultivated in the Netherlands for hundreds of years. (2) In fact, the flower industry has been so profitable that it has been boosting the Dutch economy since the seventeenth century.

Recently, (3) however, the Dutch flower growers have been having difficulties in coping with the tough competition from abroad. The Colombians, (4) for instance / for example, have taken the Dutch by surprise. Their flowers are now in demand all over the world (5) dueto the simple fact that they are cheaper. Within a few short years, Colombians have brought Holland’s domination of the flower industry to an end.

(6) Despite this fact, the Netherlands is still in control of over sixty per cent of the world’s flower market.

In order to help the Dutch growers, the European Commission has decided to promote the flower industry, as (7) long as the growers themselves are willing to cut costs and become more competitive. All this in the hope of making people buy more flowers than they used to.

Today the average Dutchman buys 150 stems a year, (8) whereas / while the Germans buy 80 stems and English only 50 stems. These numbers are constantly declining. (9) Unless this trend is reversed, (10) finally many Dutch growers will soon be out of business.


Reading Practice

D. Read the text below.

Прочитайте текст "Why SLEEP is NECESSARY?" и подготовьтесь к обсуждению новости в группе. Выразите свое отношение к информации.


Thomas Edison, the inventor of the light bulb, thought that sleep was unnecessary and that a society that operated without sleep would be an ideal one. However, he was wrong. Nowadays, we are living in a society which is sleeping less than ever and this has resulted in many negative effects.

Why sleep is necessary

According to police reports, more than twenty five per cent of motorway accidents are directly and indirectly attributed to lack of sleep. It is true that people used to sleep nine hours a night, whereas today they sleep seven or even less. This is because our way of life has changed and we are trying to squeeze activities like watching television, shopping or going to the gym in our 24-hour day.

Lack of sleep also has a negative effect on our health. Research that has been carried out on animals continuously deprived of sleep has shown that they are likely to die. Of course, experiments of this kind are highly unlikely to be carried out on humans themselves. The longest period of wakefulness which broke the record was eleven days. This experiment showed that after a few days without sleep, the mind and body were unable to function normally.

To put it in a nutshell, the vast majority of us need an adequate amount of sleep, in every twenty-four-hour period.

E. Discuss the following statements and answer the questions.

1. Nowadays people sleep less than before.
2. Lack of sleep has a negative effect on our health.
3. It is necessary to sleep 8 or more hours a day.
4. Give a piece of advice how to sleep well.