Grammar & Vocabulary Practice

A. Раздел 3 (задание по грамматике и лексике)

Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами B4–B15 так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию B4–B15.

B4


B5




B6


B7




B8



B9


B10


B11


B12



B13



B14


B15

The student asked for to leave the classroom.


Steven’s to the received everyone’s



Many car companies have increased their rates this summer.


The student was given back her assignment as it was obvious no time had been spent in its and it bore no to the subject.


Worried that everyone would be bored, Sally was to give a highly account on her holiday.

Sandra chose aerobics because she doesn’t like sports.


He’s got such an of fine art.


is one of the simplest .

It took a lot of to get Kevin to write to his mother, as there had been little between them for many years.

As the students were tired, they were not very to the teacher’s of the theory.


Many animals are during the daytime and hunt during the night.

I find it difficult to be about matters that concern me.


PERMIT


CONTRIBUTE, DISCUSS, APPROVE



RENT


PREPARE, RELATE



HESITATE, DECRIBE



COMPETE


IMPRESS, COLLECT



ADD, CALCULATE


PERSUADE, COMMUNICATE

RECEIVE,
EXPLAIN



ACT

OBJECT





Theory: Linking words

B. Remember the following linking words below


Giving examples

For example

For instance

Namely

Adding information

And

In addition

As well as

Also

Too

Furthermore

Moreover

Apart from

In addition to

Besides

Summarizing

In short

In brief

In summary

To summarize

In a nutshell

To conclude

In conclusion

Sequencing ideas

The former, … the latter

Firstly, secondly, finally

The first point is

Lastly

The following

Giving a reason

Due to / due to the fact that

Owing to / owing to the fact that

Because

Because of

Since

As

Giving a result

Therefore

So

Consequently

This means that

As a result

Contrasting ideas

But

However

Although / even though

Despite / despite the fact that

In spite of / in spite of the fact that

Nevertheless

Nonetheless

While

Whereas

Unlike

In theory… in practice…





Examination Practice

C. Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space.

Flower Power


Flowers grow everywhere in the world but when people think of tulips, they think of the Netherlands. The Dutch have a saying: “Flowers love people”. If this is true, then flowers really love the Dutch, (1) flowers have been cultivated in the Netherlands for hundreds of years. (2) , the flower industry has been so profitable that it has been boosting the Dutch economy since the seventeenth century.

Recently, (3) , the Dutch flower growers have been having difficulties in coping with the tough competition from abroad. The Colombians, (4) , have taken the Dutch by surprise. Their flowers are now in demand all over the world (5) to the simple fact that they are cheaper. Within a few short years, Colombians have brought Holland’s domination of the flower industry to an end.

(6) this fact, the Netherlands is still in control of over sixty per cent of the world’s flower market.

In order to help the Dutch growers, the European Commission has decided to promote the flower industry, as (7) as the growers themselves are willing to cut costs and become more competitive. All this in the hope of making people buy more flowers than they used to.

Today the average Dutchman buys 150 stems a year, (8) the Germans buy 80 stems and English only 50 stems. These numbers are constantly declining. (9) this trend is reversed, (10) many Dutch growers will soon be out of business.





Reading Practice

D. Read the text below.

Why SLEEP is NECESSARY?


Thomas Edison, the inventor of the light bulb, thought that sleep was unnecessary and that a society that operated without sleep would be an ideal one. However, he was wrong. Nowadays, we are living in a society which is sleeping less than ever and this has resulted in many negative effects.

According to police reports, more than twenty five per cent of motorway accidents are directly and indirectly attributed to lack of sleep. It is true that people used to sleep nine hours a night, whereas today they sleep seven or even less. This is because our way of life has changed and we are trying to squeeze activities like watching television, shopping or going to the gym in our 24-hour day.

Lack of sleep also has a negative effect on our health. Research that has been carried out on animals continuously deprived of sleep has shown that they are likely to die. Of course, experiments of this kind are highly unlikely to be carried out on humans themselves. The longest period of wakefulness which broke the record was eleven days. This experiment showed that after a few days without sleep, the mind and body were unable to function normally.

To put it in a nutshell, the vast majority of us need an adequate amount of sleep, in every twenty-four-hour period.



E. Discuss the following statements and answer the questions.


1. Nowadays people sleep less than before.

2. Lack of sleep has a negative effect on our health.

3. It is necessary to sleep 8 or more hours a day.

4. Give a piece of advice how to sleep well.